A transitional form between the two meanings exists in phrases like "Google search algorithms", which are intelligible no matter which meaning of the word algorithm one applies.
But I was genuinely shocked when I saw a link to the article titled "Turns out algorithms are racist." "What?" I thought, "Binary search or merge sort can be labeled racist? What utter nonsense!" But that turned out to be the usage of the word algorithm in the second sense — as in, some cryptic programs, trained using machine learning.
This TED talk uses the word algorithms mostly in this second sense.